SharePoint Administration



In a day-to-day life of SharePoint administration, the administrator uses the central administration page to manage the farm environment.

you can watch video which i have created on how to create web application in SharePoint 2013.

Let's open the central administration page from your development machine and It will show the below Figure:Central Administration.

We will start the Administrator journey from the Central administration page . Are you ready?

Create a web application:

You will learn how to create a webapplication using best practices of SharePoint administration to improve the performance of the server and easy maintenance and what changes will happen to  the environment.

Before creating a web application using a central administration screen we have to know what is "Web Application".

This question I will answer at the end of this post. Wait for some time, you will have fun and you will never forget if someone asks you what is web application while you just wake up from sleep, believe me.

To make things easier for you i have created a guide on how to create a web application, click on the link below to download it.

Central Administration

Figure1:Central Administration

Let's start creating a web application. To create it, click on manage web applications under "Application Management" section of the central administration screen. It will open below Figure:Web Application management

Create New Web Application

Figure :Create New Web Application.

After completion of entering the details, click ok. It will start creating a new web application and system will show a message "Sorry to keep you waiting".

Meanwhile we will enter the host header details, to do that go to Start menu click on Run, Enter drivers. It will open the drivers folder under system32 "C:\Windows\System32\drivers" or Open the folder directly using the path "C:\Windows\System32\drivers".

From that location open its folder and copy hosts file into your local system and enter your host header in this case "SP2013.learning.com" by editing it and replace with the existing one shown in the below Figure. Hosts file.

Host File

Figure.Hosts file

Once the web application gets created it will show the below Figure:Web Application Created, Congratulations...

You have successfully created your first web application.

Web Application Created

Figure:Web Application Created

Changes to SharePoint Environment:

IIS Console:

Great, now we will explore what changes happens to SharePoint the environment.

Open IIS console, to do that go to start menu and type run and enter "Inetmgr" in the run command .

You can see in the below Figure: IIS Console, under Sites section it has created new "SharePoint 2013" site and under Application Pools section new "SP2013.learning.com" application pool has been created.

If you observe the site name and Application pools names we have entered while creating the web application.

IIS Console

Figure: IIS Console

The above steps are suitable if you have a single server, but how do you check if you have large or medium farm environment?. Which server you will open ? WFE(web front end server) or Application server, to see the changes happening to the IIS console.

The answer is you have to check always WFE, because "Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application" service should be running only on WFE servers.

Content Database:

The next change is the creation of content database, whenever we create a web application it will create a content database.

The question here is what is the content database in SharePoint?.

Content Database is a place where all the content related your web application will get stored, so how do we check whether it has been created.

From central admin screen under "Application Management", click on "Managed Content Databases". In the below Figure:Content Database you can see the "SP2013_Learning_Content_Database" under the database name.This is the name which you have entered while creating a new web application, cool. If you have access to SQL server you can see Figure: Content Database from SQL server there will be new database created with the "SP2013_Learning_Content_Database" name.

You can explore the Tables which has been created under the new content database and what is the content inside it . To check the content always uses "Select Top 1000 Rows" option by right click on each table. More importantly, don't make any changes from the database side because Microsoft doesn't provide any support if something went wrong , so be careful.

On the right hand side you can observe for which web application content database is associated with it. There is one more option to Add content Database. What does it mean ?, the meaning is you can add additional content databases under one web application :). Ok well you can add multiple databases under a particular web application.

What is the use of adding that ? That I will explain in coming articles ..... Keep going.

Content Database

Figure:Content Database

Content Database from SQL server

Figure:Content Database from SQL server

Now I will answer what is "Web Application ".

"web application is composed of an Internet Information Services (IIS) web site that acts as a logical unit for the site collections that you create. Each web application is represented by a different IIS web site with a unique or shared application pool."

We will come to know what is site collection and how to create it in coming posts.

Authentication:

You have created a web application and observed what changes happens to SharePoint Environment, great. What next, authentication yes. Ask yourself the below question.

What type of authentication, I have used while creating the Web Application ?The answer would be either Claims mode Authentication or Classic mode Authentication ? Are you thinking ...don't worry I will answer that in the below few lines.

There is change while creating web application compared to previous versions. Whenever we create a Web application from central admin by default it will be Claims mode authentication in SharePoint 2013. What Microsoft is saying here is please use Claims instead of Classic mode authentication because Claims authentication has so many advantages compared to Classic mode authentication.

You can ask me, what if i want to use Classic mode authentication?. The answer is yes, you can use classic mode authentication. You will ask me again, how ? The answer is using powershell commands you can create a web application. Below is the powershell command.

"New-SPWebApplication -Name <Name> -ApplicationPool <ApplicationPool> -AuthenticationMethod <WindowsAuthType> -ApplicationPoolAccount <ApplicationPoolAccount> -Port <Port> -URL <URL>"

Configure object cache user accounts:

"The goals of the object cache are to reduce the load on the computer on which SQL Server is running, and to improve request latency and throughput. The object cache makes its queries as one of two out-of-box user accounts: the Portal Super User and the Portal Super Reader. These user accounts must be properly configured to ensure that the object cache works correctly. The Portal Super User account must be an account that has Full Control access to the Web application. The Portal Super Reader account must be an account that has Full Read access to the Web application".

This is very important step to increase the performance of your web application. So never forgot to perform this step.

Conclusion:

In this post we have seen one of the basic SharePoint administration activity i.e. created a web application in SharePoint 2013, observed what changes happens to the environment and what is the default authentication used by if you create a web application from the central administration screen. Hope you have enjoyed this post.

I have created a step by step guide for you, click the link below to download it and create web application.

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About Author

Devendra Velegandla is a four-time recipient of Microsoft's Most Valuable Professional (MVP) award (2014-2017) for Office Servers and Services MVP and  SharePoint Server. He received the MCC award for his contributions in Microsoft MSDN/TechNet forums. He loves sharing articles, videos, and tutorial on SharePoint and Office 365.